- Control pool precint and may order removal of any player, spectator or staff for foul behaviour
- Decisions are final and absolute
- Wear Red Caps numbered 1 or 13
- May use 2 hands and push off bottom of the pool (but only inside 5 metres)
- May not swim past half distance line
- Substitutes can enter the pool from anywhere after a goal, during a timeout, between periods and for injured players
- Substitutions can be made in the re-entry area at any time if both the outgoing and incoming player are both in the re-entry area, with their head clearly above the water at the same time
Types of Throws
- Free Throw - taken after Ordinary or Exclusion Foul. Throw must be taken from where foul occured or further from goal line. If foul was outside 5M line the player can immediately shoot, if inside - must pass
- Goal Throw - taken from 2M line when ball crossess over goal line
- Corner Throw - taken from 2M line(at side) after the goalkeeper blocks a shot over goal line
- Neutral Throw - taken like a jump ball at the side of the pool after both teams foul simultaneously
- Penalty Throw - shot taken from 5M line with all field players outside 5M line, keeper
Types of Fouls
- A player can make an unlimited number of "Ordinary fouls". However, a player making 3 "Personal" fouls will be finished for the game. "Misconduct" and "Brutality" fouls result in the offending player or coach being red carded and removed from the playing area.
Result in opposition being given a free throw
- To stand, walk or jump off pool's bottom or sides, goals or ropes
- To hold the ball underwater when tackled (even if opponent is forcing this)
- To touch the ball with two hands at the same time
- To push off an opponent with hand or foot
- To delay when taking any type of throw: Free, Corner, Penalty
- To waste time (intentionally not advancing ball - usually at the end of the game)
A "Personal Foul" resulting in offending player being excluded for 20 seconds and a free throw.
Excluded player swims to Re-entry area without interfering with the game. Can re-enter earlier if the team gets back possession.
- If a player leaves the water during the play of match(unless injured)
- To interfere with the Throws: getting in the way of throw, interfering with the taker or ball
- Splash intentionally in the face of the opponent
- Impeding movement of the player not holding the ball: swimming on back, shoulders, legs; blocking with arms
- To hold, sink or pull back opponent not holding the ball; any two handed hold/grab
- To kick or strike (or attempt to) an opponent
Note: the Centre and Centreback are allowed to
jostle for position using equal amounts of wrestling. However, once of player is in position,
if the opposing player then uses holding, pulling or sinking on the arms, shoulders, neck to an advantage,
the appropriate call is made whether or not the ball is at the centre position
Red card (player excluded for the rest of the game but with substitute after 20 seconds) for bad language, overly aggressive fouling, disrespecting officials or spirit of the rules.
A "Personal Foul"-results in Penalty Throw.
- For a defending player to commit any foul within 5M line, which prevents a likely goal from beng scored. Typically, this is when the attacking player is between the defender and the goal and is attempting to or about to shoot
- For a defending player to block or attempt to block shot with two hands (if they are inside 5M line)
- Brutality Exclusion - Red Card (player excluded for the rest of the game but with substitution after 4mins) - Malicious kicking or striking during play or stoppages
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